Election of 1988

LINKS

AbbreviationsDefinitionsSources

BASICS

CategoryResult
IncumbentRonald Reagan (R)
Prior streakR (2)
Prior five electionsR (4), D (1)
Population244,498,982
States51
Electoral votes538
Popular votes91,594,809
Voter turnout50.3%

FIELD OF QUALIFIED CANDIDATES

CandidatePartyPIAgeStatePositionNomWinCSROP
George H.W. BushR6.564.39TexasVice presidentXX87.86135
Michael DukakisD6.754.99MassachusettsGovernorX65.3297
Jesse JacksonD3.647.07IllinoisMovement leader33.3293
Bob DoleR7.065.28KansasSenator21.5131
Al GoreD6.840.59TennesseeSenator18.1927
Pat RobertsonR4.558.61VirginiaMovement leader15.4134
Richard GephardtD4.047.75MissouriRepresentative13.6334
Paul SimonD7.159.92IllinoisSenator12.6618
Jack KempR5.253.30New YorkRepresentative11.6322
Gary HartD6.751.93ColoradoFormer senator11.0216
Lloyd BentsenD7.667.72TexasSenator10.6214
Pete du PontR6.653.78DelawareFormer governor10.2516
Bruce BabbittD6.250.35ArizonaFormer governor10.2016

GENERAL ELECTION

CandidatePartySCPVPV%EVEV%PV*EQEV*EQ
George H.W. BushR4048,886,10653.37%42679.18%53,372,136426
Michael DukakisD1141,809,06545.65%11120.63%45,645,671111
Lloyd BentsenD000.00%10.19%01

REGIONAL SPLITS

CandidatePartyPV%EastSouthMidwestWestEVEastSouthMidwestWest
George H.W. BushR53.37%49.93%58.16%52.37%52.28%4267315510890
Michael DukakisD45.65%49.09%41.05%46.85%46.22%1116102921
Lloyd BentsenD0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%11000

PV BY STATES

StateTotal PVBushDukakisOther
Alabama1,378,476815,576549,50613,394
Alaska200,116119,25172,5848,281
Arizona1,171,873702,541454,02915,303
Arkansas827,738466,578349,23711,923
California9,887,0655,054,9174,702,233129,915
Colorado1,372,394728,177621,45322,764
Connecticut1,443,394750,241676,58416,569
Delaware249,891139,639108,6471,605
District of Columbia192,87727,590159,4075,880
Florida4,302,3132,618,8851,656,70126,727
Georgia1,809,6721,081,331714,79213,549
Hawaii354,461158,625192,3643,472
Idaho408,968253,881147,2727,815
Illinois4,559,1202,310,9392,215,94032,241
Indiana2,168,6211,297,763860,64310,215
Iowa1,225,614545,355670,5579,702
Kansas993,044554,049422,63616,359
Kentucky1,322,517734,281580,3687,868
Louisiana1,628,202883,702717,46027,040
Maine555,035307,131243,5694,335
Maryland1,714,358876,167826,30411,887
Massachusetts2,632,8051,194,6441,401,40636,755
Michigan3,669,1631,965,4861,675,78327,894
Minnesota2,096,790962,3371,109,47124,982
Mississippi931,527557,890363,9219,716
Missouri2,093,7131,084,9531,001,6197,141
Montana365,674190,412168,9366,326
Nebraska661,465397,956259,2354,274
Nevada350,067206,040132,73811,289
New Hampshire451,074281,537163,6965,841
New Jersey3,099,5531,743,1921,320,35236,009
New Mexico521,287270,341244,4976,449
New York6,485,6833,081,8713,347,88255,930
North Carolina2,134,3701,237,258890,1676,945
North Dakota297,261166,559127,7392,963
Ohio4,393,6992,416,5491,939,62937,521
Oklahoma1,171,036678,367483,4239,246
Oregon1,201,694560,126616,20625,362
Pennsylvania4,536,2512,300,0872,194,94441,220
Rhode Island404,620177,761225,1231,736
South Carolina986,009606,443370,5549,012
South Dakota312,991165,415145,5602,016
Tennessee1,636,250947,233679,7949,223
Texas5,427,4103,036,8292,352,74837,833
Utah647,008428,442207,34311,223
Vermont243,328124,331115,7753,222
Virginia2,191,6091,309,162859,79922,648
Washington1,865,253903,835933,51627,902
West Virginia653,311310,065341,0162,230
Wisconsin2,191,6081,047,4991,126,79417,315
Wyoming176,551106,86767,1132,571
Total91,594,80948,886,10641,809,065899,638

PV% BY STATES

StatePV winnerBushDukakisOther
AlabamaBush59.17%39.86%0.97%
AlaskaBush59.59%36.27%4.14%
ArizonaBush59.95%38.74%1.31%
ArkansasBush56.37%42.19%1.44%
CaliforniaBush51.13%47.56%1.31%
ColoradoBush53.06%45.28%1.66%
ConnecticutBush51.98%46.88%1.15%
DelawareBush55.88%43.48%0.64%
District of ColumbiaDukakis14.30%82.65%3.05%
FloridaBush60.87%38.51%0.62%
GeorgiaBush59.75%39.50%0.75%
HawaiiDukakis44.75%54.27%0.98%
IdahoBush62.08%36.01%1.91%
IllinoisBush50.69%48.61%0.71%
IndianaBush59.84%39.69%0.47%
IowaDukakis44.50%54.71%0.79%
KansasBush55.79%42.56%1.65%
KentuckyBush55.52%43.88%0.60%
LouisianaBush54.28%44.07%1.66%
MaineBush55.34%43.88%0.78%
MarylandBush51.11%48.20%0.69%
MassachusettsDukakis45.38%53.23%1.40%
MichiganBush53.57%45.67%0.76%
MinnesotaDukakis45.90%52.91%1.19%
MississippiBush59.89%39.07%1.04%
MissouriBush51.82%47.84%0.34%
MontanaBush52.07%46.20%1.73%
NebraskaBush60.16%39.19%0.65%
NevadaBush58.86%37.92%3.23%
New HampshireBush62.42%36.29%1.30%
New JerseyBush56.24%42.60%1.16%
New MexicoBush51.86%46.90%1.24%
New YorkDukakis47.52%51.62%0.86%
North CarolinaBush57.97%41.71%0.33%
North DakotaBush56.03%42.97%1.00%
OhioBush55.00%44.15%0.85%
OklahomaBush57.93%41.28%0.79%
OregonDukakis46.61%51.28%2.11%
PennsylvaniaBush50.71%48.39%0.91%
Rhode IslandDukakis43.93%55.64%0.43%
South CarolinaBush61.51%37.58%0.91%
South DakotaBush52.85%46.51%0.64%
TennesseeBush57.89%41.55%0.56%
TexasBush55.95%43.35%0.70%
UtahBush66.22%32.05%1.74%
VermontBush51.10%47.58%1.32%
VirginiaBush59.74%39.23%1.03%
WashingtonDukakis48.46%50.05%1.50%
West VirginiaDukakis47.46%52.20%0.34%
WisconsinDukakis47.80%51.41%0.79%
WyomingBush60.53%38.01%1.46%
TotalBush53.37%45.65%0.98%

EV BY STATES

StateTotal EVBushDukakisBentsen
Alabama9900
Alaska3300
Arizona7700
Arkansas6600
California474700
Colorado8800
Connecticut8800
Delaware3300
District of Columbia3030
Florida212100
Georgia121200
Hawaii4040
Idaho4400
Illinois242400
Indiana121200
Iowa8080
Kansas7700
Kentucky9900
Louisiana101000
Maine4400
Maryland101000
Massachusetts130130
Michigan202000
Minnesota100100
Mississippi7700
Missouri111100
Montana4400
Nebraska5500
Nevada4400
New Hampshire4400
New Jersey161600
New Mexico5500
New York360360
North Carolina131300
North Dakota3300
Ohio232300
Oklahoma8800
Oregon7070
Pennsylvania252500
Rhode Island4040
South Carolina8800
South Dakota3300
Tennessee111100
Texas292900
Utah5500
Vermont3300
Virginia121200
Washington100100
West Virginia6051
Wisconsin110110
Wyoming3300
Total5384261111

MARGINS AND FLIPS

StatePV winnerRunnerupGap (votes)Gap (points)Flip
AlabamaBushDukakis266,07019.30133,036
AlaskaBushDukakis46,66723.3223,334
ArizonaBushDukakis248,51221.21124,257
ArkansasBushDukakis117,34114.1858,671
CaliforniaBushDukakis352,6843.57176,343
ColoradoBushDukakis106,7247.7853,363
ConnecticutBushDukakis73,6575.1036,829
DelawareBushDukakis30,99212.4015,497
District of ColumbiaDukakisBush131,81768.3465,909
FloridaBushDukakis962,18422.37481,093
GeorgiaBushDukakis366,53920.26183,270
HawaiiDukakisBush33,7399.5216,870
IdahoBushDukakis106,60926.0753,305
IllinoisBushDukakis94,9992.0847,500
IndianaBushDukakis437,12020.16218,561
IowaDukakisBush125,20210.2262,602
KansasBushDukakis131,41313.2365,707
KentuckyBushDukakis153,91311.6476,957
LouisianaBushDukakis166,24210.2183,122
MaineBushDukakis63,56211.4531,782
MarylandBushDukakis49,8632.9124,932
MassachusettsDukakisBush206,7627.85103,382
MichiganBushDukakis289,7037.90144,852
MinnesotaDukakisBush147,1347.0273,568
MississippiBushDukakis193,96920.8296,985
MissouriBushDukakis83,3343.9841,668
MontanaBushDukakis21,4765.8710,739
NebraskaBushDukakis138,72120.9769,361
NevadaBushDukakis73,30220.9436,652
New HampshireBushDukakis117,84126.1358,921
New JerseyBushDukakis422,84013.64211,421
New MexicoBushDukakis25,8444.9612,923
New YorkDukakisBush266,0114.10133,006
North CarolinaBushDukakis347,09116.26173,546
North DakotaBushDukakis38,82013.0619,411
OhioBushDukakis476,92010.85238,461
OklahomaBushDukakis194,94416.6597,473
OregonDukakisBush56,0804.6728,041
PennsylvaniaBushDukakis105,1432.3252,572
Rhode IslandDukakisBush47,36211.7123,682
South CarolinaBushDukakis235,88923.92117,945
South DakotaBushDukakis19,8556.349,928
TennesseeBushDukakis267,43916.34133,720
TexasBushDukakis684,08112.61342,041
UtahBushDukakis221,09934.17110,550
VermontBushDukakis8,5563.524,279
VirginiaBushDukakis449,36320.50224,682
WashingtonDukakisBush29,6811.5914,841
West VirginiaDukakisBush30,9514.7415,476
WisconsinDukakisBush79,2953.6239,648
WyomingBushDukakis39,75422.5219,878
TotalBushDukakis7,077,0417.733,538,521